Office & Productivity

How is Makepan calculated?

Find the quickest time on either list by going through both lists. Schedule this task first and take it off of both lists if list one has the smallest time. Schedule it last if the item with the lowest duration is on the second list.

How is makespan calculated?

To determine the minimum makespan for a set of jobs requiring two machines, start by sorting the job times into two lists. The first list consists of times for machine 1 and the second list contains job times for machine 2. Go through both lists and find the shortest time in either list.

What is makespan in operations management?

In operations research, the makespan of a project is the length of time that elapses from the start of work to the end.

What is total makespan?

The makespan is the total length of the schedule (that is, when all the jobs have finished processing).

What is makespan of a product?

Makespan definition In manufacturing, the time difference between the start and finish of a sequence of jobs or tasks. If we don't reduce the makespan of that product, the order won't be shipped on time. noun.

Is makespan same as cycle time?

Cycle time (CT) = time between the completions of batches. Non-overlapping: Overlapping: Makespan = total time required to produce a given number of batches.

What is makespan in cloud computing?

Makespan or completion time is the total time taken to process a set of jobs for its complete execution. Minimization of makespan can be done by assigning the set of Ji jobs to set of virtual machines ' vm', the order of execution of the jobs in virtual machines does not matters.

How do you calculate span time?

Divide the total number of minutes by 60 to convert minutes to hours. Finally, add your total hours spent to the minutes you converted to hours to see exactly how much time you spent on the activities you listed. Select the cell with minutes converted to hours. Type a plus sign and select the cell with hours.

How do you calculate production time per day?

Calculate ProductivityBy dividing the number of products produced by the man-hours involved, you calculate the average production rate. As an example, if your employees produced 800 units in the 200 total man-hours during the week, divide 800 by 200 to calculate 4 units per man-hour.

How do I calculate my working minutes?

All you need to do is divide your minutes by 60. For example, say your employee worked 20 hours and 15 minutes during the week. Divide your total minutes by 60 to get your decimal. For this pay period, your employee worked 20.25 hours.

How do I calculate my work hours per week?

For each of the weeks you had any leave, record the number of hours you would have worked if you were not taking leave. Add up the number of hours from each week to get your total. Divide by the total number of weeks.

What are the criteria for evaluating the CPU scheduling algorithms why do we need it?

Many criteria have been suggested for comparing CPU scheduling algorithms. The main objective of any CPU scheduling algorithm is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. Theoretically, CPU utilisation can range from 0 to 100 but in a real-time system, it varies from 40 to 90 percent depending on the load upon the system.

How are critical ratio and slack time priority rules related?

The Critical Ratio and Slack Time rules are directed toward improving a shop's performance against scheduled delivery dates by giving preference to those orders whlch are most likely to be completed later than their due date.

What is mean flow time?

The mean flow time of a schedule provides a measure of the average time that a task spends within a computer system, and also the average number of unfinished tasks in the system. The mean flow time of a schedule is defined to be the sum of the finishing times of all tasks in the system.

What is slack operation?

Slack time per operation (ST/O). This is a variant of ST. The slack time is divided by the number of operations remaining until the job is complete with the smallest values being scheduled first.

What do you mean by makespan?

makespan (plural makespans) (manufacturing) the time difference between the start and finish of a sequence of jobs or tasks.

What rule reduces the makespan in single machine?

It is proved that the Longest Processing Time first (LPT) rule minimizes the expected makespan. For the large-scale problem, it is also showed that the Shortest Processing Time first (SPT) rule is optimal to minimize the expected total completion times of all jobs.

What is EDD rule?

EDD (Earliest Due Date). EDD sequencing rule is that “jobs are processed according to the due date, earliest due date first.”

What is weighted completion time?

Total (Weighted) Completion Time The total completion time is the sum of all the completion times of the jobs. It is commonly referred to as the flow time. Let wi denote the weight assigned to the ith job in the a batch of n jobs given.

What is the term used for managing work flow and queues at work centers?

input/output control. managing work flow and queues at work centers. job flow time. the amount of time from when a job arrives until it is finished. job shop scheduling.

What are the two general approaches to scheduling?

Generally, scheduling objectives deals with tradeoffs among conflicting goals for efficient utilization of labor and equipment, lead time, inventory levels, and processing times. There are two general approaches to scheduling: forward scheduling and backward scheduling.

How is EDD calculated?

Your benefit amount is based on the quarter with your highest wages earned within the base period. A base period covers 12 months and is divided into four consecutive quarters. The base period includes wages subject to SDI tax that were paid about 5 to 18 months before your disability claim began.

Which formula is used for calculating EDD?

An estimated due date can be calculated by following steps 1 through 3: First, determine the first day of your last menstrual period. Next, count back 3 calendar months from that date. Lastly, add 1 year and 7 days to that date.

Why is EDD calculated from LMP?

Due date estimation basically follows two steps: Determination of which time point is to be used as the origin for gestational age. This starting point is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP) or the corresponding time as estimated by a more accurate method if available.

What is Johnson's rule scheduling?

Johnson's Rule is: From the list of unscheduled jobs, select the one with the shortest processing time in either work center. If the shortest time is at the first work center, do the job first in the schedule otherwise do the job last in the schedule.

How is slack time remaining calculated?

It's a simple formula that you'll easily remember: Slack time = Latest start time - Earliest start time.

What is the slack time rule?

Slack time is defined as the temporal difference between the deadline, the ready time and the run time.

How do you calculate mean flow time?

Calculation mean flow time:MFT= (sum job flow times)/ # of jobs.

How do I calculate flow rate?

To calculate the drops per minute, the drop factor is needed. The formula for calculating the IV flow rate (drip rate) is total volume (in mL) divided by time (in min), multiplied by the drop factor (in gtts/mL), which equals the IV flow rate in gtts/min.

What is the unit of flow?

Flow is the volume of fluid that passes in a unit of time. In water resources, flow is often measured in units of cubic feet per second (cfs), cubic meters per second (cms), gallons per minute (gpm), or other various units.

What is the formula for critical ratio?

The critical ratio (CR) is a rule used in priority sequencing of work waiting for processing at a work center. The CR priority index number is created by the formula (due date – today's date) divided by the total shop time remaining. If this rule is used for sequencing, the job with the lowest CR is scheduled first.

How do you find the critical ratio in scheduling?

The critical ratio (CR) is calculated by dividing the time remaining until a job's due date by the total shop time remaining for the job, which is defined as the setup, processing, move, and expected waiting times of all remaining operations, including the operation being scheduled.

How do you calculate throughput in CPU scheduling?

It can be defined as the number of processes executed by the CPU in a given amount of time. For example, let's say, the process P1 takes 3 seconds for execution, P2 takes 5 seconds, and P3 takes 10 seconds. So, throughput, in this case, the throughput will be (3+5+10)/3 = 18/3 = 6 seconds.

Which is the best CPU scheduling algorithm?

The FCFS is better for a small burst time. The SJF is better if the process comes to processor simultaneously. The last algorithm, Round Robin, is better to adjust the average waiting time desired.

How many CPU scheduling criteria are there?

CPU scheduling is the task performed by the CPU that decides the way and order in which processes should be executed. There are two types of CPU scheduling - Preemptive, and non-preemptive.

How many hours is a 37.5 hour work week?

Most 9-5 weekday jobs are 37.5 hours - ie 40hrs minus a half hour break each day. So I'm guessing in a school the hours would be like 8-4:30 or something with a lunch hour and a morning break. Rep: ?

What does 7.6 hours equate to?

7.6 hours equates to 7 hours 36 minutes.

How many hours is 8am to 4pm with 30 minute lunch?

There are 8 full hours between these times. It also supports the subtraction of lunch breaks and other types of pauses from the total hours in between.

How do you convert minutes?

There are 60 minutes in 1 hour. To convert from minutes to hours, divide the number of minutes by 60. For example, 120 minutes equals 2 hours because 120/60=2.

How do you calculate production hours?

To calculate the production per hour, you can record the total production hour. Then you can divide the total production unit by the total production hour. This is one way to calculate production per hour. Alternatively, you can use formulas to estimate production per hour by observing a certain period of time.

How do you calculate productivity per hour?

Let's say your company generated $80,000 worth of goods or services (output) utilizing 1,500 labor hours (input). To calculate your company's labor productivity, you would divide 80,000 by 1,500, which equals 53. This means that your company generates $53 per hour of work.

How do you calculate production pieces vs man hours?

Divide the number of pieces produced by the number of man-hours to calculate the pieces produced per man-hour. Continuing with the example, divide 50,000 pieces produced by 1,600 man-hours to get 31.3 pieces produced per man-hour.

How do you calculate 30 minute lunch break?

Then, subtract the break time from the total time worked. For example, let's account for a 30-minute break in the workday. Finally, subtract the break time from the time worked. So, that's how you find the total time worked in a day from 9:00 to 5:30 with a 30-minute break is 8 hours.

How do we calculate time?

The formula for time is given as [Time = Distance ÷ Speed].

Is 8am to 4pm 8 hours?

8am to 4pm is 8 hours - calculate time between any two hours while you type.

How do you calculate a 9 day fortnight?

What is a nine day fortnight? Simply put, you work the same amount of hours, but condensed over nine days instead of 10. For example, instead of working 8am – 4pm, you work 8am – 4:45pm. Every other Friday is then your own lovely day off!

Does 37.5 hours include lunch break?

Depends whether lunch breaks are counted in the hours. 37.5 sounds pretty standard. If 35 I'd definitely expect that not to include any breaks so in practice you'd be in the office 37.5 to 40 hours a week (assuming 30 min or 1 hr breaks respectively).

What is a half day if you work 7.5 hours?

You work 7.5 hours a day. So half a day is 3.75 hours.

What is CPU scheduling criteria?

The criteria include the following: CPU utilisation – The main objective of any CPU scheduling algorithm is to keep the CPU as busy as possible. Theoretically, CPU utilisation can range from 0 to 100 but in a real-time system, it varies from 40 to 90 percent depending on the load upon the system. Throughput –

What are the three types of CPU scheduling?

Types of CPU scheduling Algorithm. First Come First Serve. Shortest Remaining Time. Priority Based Scheduling.

What is difference between throughput and turnaround time?

Throughput is defined as the number of processes that complete their execution per unit time. Turnaround time is the amount of time to execute a particular process. Waiting time is the amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue.

What are the four main criteria by which we evaluate sequencing rules?

The critical ratio sequencing rule prioritizes the jobs based on the importance or value of the customers who have placed the orders. Dispatching rules are typically judged by four effectiveness criteria: average completion time, utilization, average number of jobs in the system, and average job lateness.

How do you calculate shortest processing time?

Shortest processing time (SPT) – a rule that sequences jobs to be processed on a resource in ascending order of their processing times. The average flow time of FCFS: (45+65+130+160+200) / 5 = 120 (min.) The average flow time of SPT: (20+50+90+135+200) / 5 = 99 (min.)

How are critical ratio and slack time priority rules related?

The Critical Ratio and Slack Time rules are directed toward improving a shop's performance against scheduled delivery dates by giving preference to those orders whlch are most likely to be completed later than their due date.

What is the T ratio?

The t-value is a ratio of the difference between the mean of the two sample sets and the variation that exists within the sample sets.

How would you comment on a project if its critical ratio is less than one what might be the reasons?

A project with a CR of less than one suffered from being either behind schedule, over budget, or both. A CR of exactly one means the project met the manager's scheduling and budget expectations. A CR of more than one means that the project was either ahead of schedule, under budget or both.

How do I calculate flow rate?

To calculate the drops per minute, the drop factor is needed. The formula for calculating the IV flow rate (drip rate) is total volume (in mL) divided by time (in min), multiplied by the drop factor (in gtts/mL), which equals the IV flow rate in gtts/min.

How do you calculate water flow rate?

To calculate the water flow (in m3) multiply the average water velocity (in m/s) by the average width (in m) and by the average depth (in m). Water flow = 0.425 m/s x 1 m x 0.6 m = 0.255 m3/s. Note: remember that 1 m3 = 1 000 l so multiply by this to convert water flow measurements to litres per second (l/s).

How do you calculate area of flow?

If the liquid is flowing through a pipe, the area is A = πr2, where r is the radius of the pipe. For a rectangle, the area is A = wh where w is the width, and h is the height. The flow rate can be measured in meters cubed per second (m3/s), or in liters per second (L/s).

Is flow time and flow rate the same?

The flow rate usually is an average rate. Flow time: The amount of time a flow unit spends in a business process from beginning to end, also known as the total processing time. If there is more than one path through the process, the flow time is equivalent to the length of the longest path.

How do you calculate water flow in Litres per minute?

The easiest way to get a fairly accurate measure of your water flow rate is to time yourself filling up a bucket. So for example if you fill up a 10 litre bucket in 1.5 minutes, then your flow rate will be: 10/1.5 = 6.66 Litres per minute.

How do you calculate Litres per hour?

A liter per day (lt/d) is unit of volume flow rate equal to a liter flow per day. This tool converts liters per day to liters per hour (lt/d to lt/h) and vice versa. 1 liter per day ≈ 0.04167 liters per hour.

What is mean flow time?

The mean flow time of a schedule provides a measure of the average time that a task spends within a computer system, and also the average number of unfinished tasks in the system. The mean flow time of a schedule is defined to be the sum of the finishing times of all tasks in the system.

How do you calculate flow time efficiency?

Essentially, flow efficiency is the ratio between your active time and total time. It tells us how much work in progress is actually in progress. To calculate your flow efficiency percentage, simply divide the time you actively spend working with your total cycle time and multiply the result with a hundred.

Does flow time include waiting time?

Flow Time is the amount of time a unit spends in a process from beginning to end, including waiting in line to be run. It is also called total process time.

How is slack calculated?

Total slack is calculated as the smaller value of the Late Finish minus the Early Finish field, and the Late Start minus the Early Start field. Best Uses Use the Total Slack field to determine whether the task has any time available for a delay.

How does slack calculate activity?

The slack of an activity can be calculated as the difference between its latest start and earliest start time, or alternatively, as the difference between its latest and earliest finishing time.

How do you calculate slack and free slack?

Total slack is calculated as the smaller value of the late finish minus the early finish when compared to early start minus the late start. Total slack can be either positive or negative. If total slack is positive, then it indicates the amount of time the project can be delayed without extending the project.